Friday, October 18, 2019

Bronze Age I1 in Scandinavia

We have not much available information about prehistoric I1 although the amount Bronze Age and Iron Age samples increases and clade age estimations of living I1 samples point to Bronze Age.  To see whether the situation today differs from what old studies have found, I  made an estimation using the latest ISOGG haplotree, because it is possible that older studies have poorer yDna mutation maps.  I gathered samples from three studies:

1 Megalithic tombs in western and northern Neolithic Europe were linked to a kindred society, link here

2 Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, link here

3 The genomic ancestry of the Scandinavian Battle Axe Culture people and their relation to the broader Corded Ware horizon, link here

Based on these samples, there are indeed several Bronze Age samples belonging to I1 published by studies 2 and 3.  On the other hand samples belonging to the study 1 were predominantly (likely all) I2 and no I1 samples belonged to this sample set,  so it looks like the I1 appeared in North Europe in a wider context during the Bronze Age, although one sample from the Scandinavian Megalithic era turned out to be  I1, as well as one sample was classified as Nordic Late Neolithic.  Scandinavian Megalithic era was however  contemporary to the North European Neolithic.   Based on these tests it looks like North European populations before the Neolithic era belonged to I2 (also proven in many studies) and  the Funnelbeaker culture was the first one representing a new genetic profile including I1 as a part of the Neolithic expansion and this event marginalized former I2 (this is only my humble opinion)

Study 1 25 samples contained y-chromosomal sequences, of which 21 were I2*, 2 was   I* and 2 F*. No other haplogroups were detected.

Here are ancient samples and found terminal mutations belonging to I1, published in studies 2 and 3:

1 RISE175 
- Sweden Abekas I
- Nordic-BA 
- Barrow_1_grave_14:1 
- 14C_date_3025BP 
- AM00088 I1a2a1a1a2~ AMM445 I1a2a1a1a2~ CTS9191 I1a2a1a1a2~

2 RISE179 
- Sweden Abekas I
- Nordic-LN 
- Barrow_1_grave_S:1 
- 14C_date_3556BP 
- CTS3506 I1 Z2765 I1

3 RISE207 
- Sweden Ängemöllan 
- Nordic-BA Cranium_XII 
- 14C_date_3130BP 
- M450 I1 S109 I1

4 RISE210 
- Sweden Ängemöllan 
- Nordic-BA Cranium_VI 
- 14C_date_3105BP 
- CTS1755^ I1 Z2750^ I1 CTS4400 I1 Z2775 I1 CTS5167 I1 Z2784 I1 CTS6765  I1 Z2806 I1 CTS11036 I1 Z2863 I1 CTS733 I1 Z2703 I1 FGC2439 I1 Z2711 I1

5 oll009 
- Sweden Öllsjö 
- Megalithic 
- 1930-1750BCE 
- V1614 I1a~ Z2891 I1a~

Sample quality has sure effect on results and, although the results are accurate, we can't consider them as real terminal mutations. 

The most interesting question we can ask now is would it be possible to uncover more yDna information by reprocessing all ancient samples using newest haplotree models.  I would say yes, but it is also too big effort for me, because we have hundreds or thousands samples today and alone downloading them would take months.  There are in ENA (European Nucleotide Archive) for me unknown amount of  European samples that could belong also to I1.  

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