tiistai 6. marraskuuta 2018

Mongolian or not Mongolian

I already promised to stop my IBD rant, but it did happen that a new Chinese study provoked me to do a little more.  This new study is here and here.   The figure below shows shared IBD segments of 1-2 cM and the ratio between shared segments of Evenks and Mongolians.  If the ratio is high then the Evenk admixture is more likely than the Mongolian one.  If the ratio is low, but over 1, we go closer the Mongolian probability, but the Evenks IBD (Siberians) can act like a proxy for Mongolians.  Ratios below 1 means that the Mongolian admixture is more likely than the Evenk (Siberian) one. 

perjantai 2. marraskuuta 2018

Pskov Russia, the connection between Finnic groups

This will be my last IBD test for a while, because IBD itself is not a good method for seeking oldest ancestral linkages.  It is still a good statistic method manifesting events of the Iron Age and the genealogical time frame.  It is excellent in seeking real ancestral linkages in the before mentioned time-period and can be preferred instead of any method using allele data, such as PCA, DSTAT etc., because all those methods imply only genetic distance and genetic  distance depends on the admixture itself.   Using allele statistic in seeking the origin of mixed populations is always misleading.  You can only suggest that your hypotheses are right or wrong and continue testing using different variations to increase the probability.

Here I present some IBD results of both Finnic and Russian populations using Beagle version 5.   The linkage between all Finnic people and also between Finnic and Baltic people is notable and turns up in Pskov (in Finnish Pihkova). The Pskov area is also the northernmost place in Russia where I have found autosomal relatives (23andme).

I use again Finnish samples from the 1000 genomes project, but at this time I grouped them using my project members, whose geographic origin is known.  



Cross-checking with Pskov is presented below.  Notice that there is no Siperian admixture in Pskov. Although people, including most researches, suggest that the Siberian admixture among Finnic people is a common signature of the origin of the FU languages, nothing about it is proven.  The Siberian admixture in Finland is dated to the Iron Age by several scientists and research.  Still the hypothesis of the present day Siberian admixture in Finland and the origin of the language (FU urheimat theories) is usually thought to be proven!  The IBD connection between Finns and North Russian is two-fold;  at first the Finnish Iron Age migration to Russia and secondly the common Siberian admixture which is quite new.  This kind of Iron Age Siberian migration/admixture doesn't exist between Finns and people in Pskov and we have no evidence about migrations from Finland to Pskov.  Instead of this, we have clear and undeniable linguistic evidences about Finnish eastern migrations to the Northwestern Russia, at least to the area of the lake Onega! The primary conclusion have to be that the Pskov area had a pre-Iron Age connection with Finnic people, including the Finns. It must have happened before the Siberian admixture in Finland and before the Finnish eastern migration. 

Russian results do not give an observation of any distinct ancestry from the Pskov area and only the northernmost Russians show some divergence from the Russian resemblance.

keskiviikko 10. lokakuuta 2018

More IBD-statistics, including Mordvas, Brits and Basques

I have now automated the process and can do "quick and dirty" statistics of all below listed populations.  Adding new populations takes about two days in a case I have them in my backbone data base.   Here are now existing populations and sample counts.   Adding new populations to my data base takes longer, around a week. 

The results are based on slightly changed phasing parameters, so there can be slight differences in absolute values.  Used programs are Plink, Impute2 and Beagle version 5. 

sunnuntai 30. syyskuuta 2018

Potential Kyrgyz admixture in Europe, shown using IBD results from Beagle 5

It is well known that during the first millennium the Europe  was threatened by invading Mongols called Huns.  The Huns themselves were probably not a homogeneous group and were build of many ethnic groups.  Later, during the second millennium Europeans, especially Eastern Slavs were threatened by the army of Genghis Khan.  Those later rulers were called Tatars.  My results show that there is a subtle Mongol admixture in Europe, but amazingly not among present day Tatars.  The results are based on the difference of IBD sharing between Nganasans and Kyrgyz.  Nganasans are known as an isolated group of Northwest Siberian people, used often to demonstrate Siberian admixture in Europe.  My previous test shows that Evens match even better in this purpose, but the distribution of Evens is much larger in Europe, which can be due to the European admixture among Evens, rather than wise versa. So it is better to use more distinct Nganasans in this purpose.


lauantai 29. syyskuuta 2018

Swedish IBD-sharings around the Baltic Sea and a little further

Unfortunately I have not enough German, Danish and Norwegian samples, or the origin is unclear, but here some evidence about the Swedish influence in Finland, or conversely Finnish/Karelian influence in Sweden, if you prefer it.     For better or worse, the IBD-sharing is evident on the eastward route.   My goal is to add at least some known German samples in the future.

Saami IBD-sharing

Continuing with the same phased data I made two IBD-statistics and compared the Saami (from Finnmark) with Northern Europeans and Siberians.  The result shows highest 1-2 cM IBD's between Saamis and Even samples from the SGDP data.  So I made a follow-up using SGDP-Evens.   I have not detailed information about the origin of those Evens.   The curve implies that the connection between Saamis and SGDP-Evens is old but strong.

Notable is also the strong 2-3cM sharing between Saamis and Northern Baltic Finns, including Finns, Karelians, Vepsas and Ingrians.   This may be a consequence of the first contact between Saamis and Baltic Finns.  Smaller segments are more vague in timing due to the random segment break down and data  inaccuracy.

perjantai 28. syyskuuta 2018

Differences in IBD-sharings between Estonians and Finns

These statistics are based on haploid IBD's made by Beagle 5 and Beagle Refined IBD.  The data was partly imputed (IMPUTE2) to increase the SNP amount of some populations from 300 kSNP to 500kSNP, although most samples are from larger data sets.   Samples of this IBD-data are listed here, including also sample sizes.  Accuracy of results depends on the sample size, although trends are quite reliable anyway, as the following tests show without doubt.   I'll continue testing with this data later.

Results show the average IBD-sharing (segments) between single individuals of each population.

(X-axis legends fixed, note that the minimum segment size was 1 cM)