Tuesday, May 24, 2022

European admixtures by qpAdm

 What I have seen we have no standards in reporting ancient admixtures of recent populations. Commercial services give sometimes 70% Western Hunter Gatherer, sometimes 15%.  Methods are poorly described, if at all.  Obviously there are admixture overlaps and the results depend on how admixture tools identify them.  For instance Yamnaya Samara overlaps with several hunter gatherer groups.  I am sure that also European early farmers (LBK_EN) overlap with later Near East admixture in Europe and later Near Eastern admixture exists in Mediterranean.  In other words admixture runs without Near Eastern samples assume EEF, but it doesn't give best fit.  My test uses following qpAdm files:

Right file:

Levant_Neolithic (sample I0867)

Left file:

BedouinB (selected most distant samples from Europeans)

The results looks reasonable and qpAdm gave positive best coefficients without errors with only one exception, Swedes.  I don't know why modern Swedes failed, because ancient Gotlanders made a perfect fit.

Tuesday, May 17, 2022

New Finnish Iron Age study on the way

 Here the link of preprint.  It looks like an arrival of a new male group from Estonia representing Baltic Finns mixed with older more Swedish-like population.  Obviously those western females represented older local population, which at the end of the Viking Era became isolated from Sweden.  Hard to believe that Swedish females migrated to Finland without men.

Wednesday, April 13, 2022

New blog

 Unfortunately it looks like Finnish genetic research has been paused so far due to disappointing results.  Hopefully Finnish researchers make necessary reappraisals, because we need objective knowledge about our prehistory.  Today the gap between linguistics, genetics and archaeology is too big to support objectives of Finnish genetic research.  I am afraid it takes years to turn the ship into a correct lane and I probably never will see rational Finnish genetic research.  My pessimism is based on that fact that I have over 10 years experience about this matter.   

Meanwhile I can do nothing with this matter I decided to open a new blog dealing with Finnish history and prehistory.  Topics will mainly cover  observations mirroring the Western Finnish history, facts, myths and visions.  Unfortunately I have not time and resources to give inclusive reference lists and readers have to make some efforts for it. Language is often Finnish, but translators are today reasonable good to give you points.


Monday, January 10, 2022

Kazakh ancient N-haplogroups were N1a1a1a1a

 Several samples from the time around 300 BC in Kazakhstan belong to the same haplogroup level than Kola Peninsula samples from 1500 BC, reported by mutations L1026 or L392.  I was not able to find any RECENT ISOGG downstream mutations, which makes me think if all European side N can be derived from these Kazakh Iron Age men.  If this is true we have a problem with the home land of Finnic speakers, considering that they belonged to N and home  land of them was not near Kazakhstan.   At 500 BC we should find downstream mutation taking into account datings of the first Finnic speakers in the Baltic area and believing in the incidence of N1a1a1a1a at 500 BC in Europe and in Central Asia simultaneously.  TMRCA of the N1a1a1a1a is according to Yfull 3000 years (1000 BC).  The mystery of the origin of European N remains.   Everything proves about a rapid expansion to the Baltic area and to North Russia.  What ever caused this, what language they spoke and adapted remains without answer and makes the mystery even deeper after these finds from Kazakhstan.  Another explanation is that there was still unknown brance of N1a1a1a1a somewhere in West Siberia or Northern Russia around 1000-500 BC, but we have not evidence of it.

SMV001 N1a1a1a1a Sargat_300BCE

BIY001 N1a* Sargat_300BCE

BIY002 N1a1a1a1a Sargat_300BCE

BIY005 N1a1a1a1a Sargat_300BCE

BIY007 N1a1a1a1a Sargat_300BCE

BIY009 N1a1a1a1a Sargat_300BCE

BIY012 N* Sargat_300BCE

KOK001 N1a* (likely N1a1a1a1a) Kokonovka_200BCE

KOK002 N1a1a1a1a Kokonovka_200BCE

BGD004 N1* (likely N1a1a1a1a) Bogdanovka_150BCE


N1a1a1a1a L392 L1026

Wednesday, December 29, 2021

APOE gene is related to Alzheimer's disease, but also to Covid-19 vulnerability

 I made APOE gene statistics using the 1000 genomes data.  The APOE gene is bound to two SNPs, rs429358 and rs7412, both on the chr 19.  In the worst case both are homozygous for the allele C (e4  resulting vulnerability of 12x for late-onset Alzheimer's and 61x for early-onset disease.  If the first SNP is heterozygous and the latter CC (e3) the possbility is still >3x increased risk for Alzheimer's; 1.4x increased risk for heart disease.  Now, new studies connect these alleles also to increased risk for serious Covid disease.


rs429358 freq/individual, rs7412 any value LWK 0.727 GWD 0.478 ESN 0.465 MSL 0.447 ACB 0.417 YRI. 0.389 FIN 0.364 ASW 0.344 CEU 0.333 GBR 0.330 CLM 0.277 STU 0.255 IBS 0.243 PUR 0.212 TSI 0.187 CHB 0.184 CDX 0.183 BEB 0.174 MXL 0.172 ITU 0.167 PJL 0.167 JPT 0.163 KHV 0.121 PEL 0.118 CHS 0.105 GIH 0.097 APOE4 FREQ/ind, rs7412=CC LWK 0.1515 GWD 0.0796 ACB 0.0729 ESN 0.0606 MSL 0.0588 GBR 0.0440 FIN 0.0404 YRI. 0.0370 ASW 0.0328 CLM 0.0213 CEU 0.0202 KHV 0.0202 STU 0.0196 JPT 0.0192 BEB 0.0116 PJL 0.0104 GIH 0.0097 IBS 0.0093 APOE3 FREQ/ind, rs7412=CC LWK 0.424 ESN 0.343 MSL 0.329 GWD 0.319 YRI 0.315 CEU 0.293 FIN 0.283 ASW 0.279 ACB 0.271 GBR 0.242 CLM 0.234 IBS 0.224 STU 0.216 PUR 0.212 TSI 0.187 CHB 0.184 CDX 0.183 MXL 0.172 ITU 0.167 BEB 0.151 PJL 0.146 JPT 0.125 PEL 0.118 CHS 0.105 KHV 0.081 GIH 0.078

Monday, October 18, 2021

European IBD statistics

 Many online genetic services provide individual  ancestry results but don't reveal their methods.  For me 9 of 10 services give Finnish plus minor 5-8% admixture of Greek or Italian.  I have seen a man of fully Croat ancestry getting additionally 12 % Orcadian ancestry.  Surprising Orcadian in Balkans, really? Only to mention two examples. Those ancestry testing companies looks like modern alchemists.  My advice is, don't pay, you can get ancestry tests for free from services using open source softwares.   Maybe results of open source softwares are not perfect, but at least you have a possibility to find out how the results are done. 

It is obvious that these companies use a special data adaptation and model putative ancestral pools to geographical locations according their own approaches, but they are not professional historians.  Maybe there is seen a growing genealogical demand in countries where the paper trail is incomplete or they simply try to give a shortcut bypassing paper trail, but according my experience there is no substitute for the old fashion genealogy work.  I am not going to start searching my Italian cousins, because  my paper trail, fully covering to the end of the 17th century, doesn't show Italian roots. 


Sunday, September 19, 2021

A new Finnish study about yDna haplogroups

 A new study observes yDna haplogroup frequencies and CAD (Coronary artery disease), in Finnish sepelvaltimotauti) vulnerability of haplogoups in Finland.  Haplogroup frequencies show very close same number with the study Lappalainen et al. 2006, but differ from the study Neuvonen et al. 2015.  New haplogroup proportions are

N1c1 60,18 %
I1 26,44 %
R1a1 5,99 %
R1b 5,01 %
I2 0,97 %
E1b1 0,51 %

The study is dowloadable from the link in the end of the following textlink

Results figuring CAD are contradictory with another Finnish study.  This study (published in a Finnish medical magazin Duodecim by Joel Nuotio*, Tomi T. Laitinen* ja Markus Juonala, Link) gives following results, showing the highest vulnerability of CAD in East Finnish regions where the proportion of N1c1 is highest and the lowest vulnerability was found in Southwest regions where the N1c1 proportion is the second highest.  


A - autosomal genetic structure in Finland

B - CAD incidence

C - genomewide CAD risk

I see two main factors involved with the disease vulnerability

- way of life

- autosomal inheritance

The Duodecim article shows the highest CAD incidence in the northeast and lowest in the southwest, both areas having the highest N1c1 proportions in Finland.  The way of life is today quite the same everywhere in Finland, thanks to the similar food markets and consistent culture  in the whole  country.  So what remains is differences in the autosomal inheritance.  Southwest and east have been isolated from each other hundreds years in the Finnish history and we can predict also significant difference in the autosomal inheritance of those two areas, the difference we can also see using autosomal genome tests.  Basically the areas of the HG I1 are between southwestern and eastern N1c1 areas and we can predict that the CAD vulnerability of I1 should be between the vulnerability of those two N1c1 areas.